Tuning timing measurements¶

The results from timing benchmarks are generally variable.

Performance variations occur on different time scales. For timing benchmarks repeated immediately after each other, there is always some jitter in the results, due to operating system scheduling and other sources. For timing benchmarks run at more widely separated times, systematic differences changing on long time scales can appear, for example from changes in the background system load or built-in CPU mechanisms for power and heat management.

Airspeed Velocity has mechanisms to deal with these variations. For dealing with short-time variations, you can use the sample_time, number and repeat attributes of timing benchmarks to control how results are sampled and averaged. For long-time variations, you can use the processes attribute and --interleave-processes, --append-samples, and -a processes=4 command line options to run timing benchmarks at more widely spaced times, in order to average over long-time performance variations.

If you are planning to capture historical benchmark data for most commits, very accurate timings are not necessary. The detection of regressions in historical benchmark data used in asv is designed to be statistically robust and tolerates fair amounts of noise. However, if you are planning to use asv continuous and asv compare, accurate results are more important.

Library settings¶

If your code uses 3rd party libraries, you may want to check their settings before benchmarking. In particular, such libraries may use automatic multithreading, which may affect runtime performance in surprising ways. If you are using libraries such as OpenBLAS, Intel MKL, or OpenMP, benchmark results may become easier to understand by forcing single-threaded operation. For these three, this can be typically done by setting environment variables:

OPENBLAS_NUM_THREADS=1


Tuning machines for benchmarking¶

Especially if you are using a laptop computer for which the heat and power management is an issue, getting reliable results may require too long averaging times to be practical.

To improve the situation it is possible to optimize the usage and settings of your machine to minimize the variability in timing benchmarks. Generally, while running benchmarks there should not be other applications actively using CPU, or you can run asv pinned to a CPU core not used by other processes. You should also force the CPU frequency or power level settings to a fixed value.

The perf project has documentation on how to tune machines for benchmarking. The simplest way to apply basic tuning on Linux using perf is to run:

sudo python -mperf system tune


This will modify system settings that can be only changed as root, and you should read the perf documentation on what it precisely does. This system tuning also improves results for asv. To achieve CPU affinity pinning with asv (e.g. to an isolated CPU), you should use the –cpu-affinity option.

It is also useful to note that configuration changes and operating system upgrades on the benchmarking machine can change the baseline performance of the machine. For absolutely best results, you may then want to use a dedicated benchmarking machine that is not used for anything else. You may also want to carefully select a long-term supported operating system, such that you can only choose to install security upgrades.